### Git for beginners part 3: moving HEAD

All about reset and why its useful.

Exploiting built-in functions, and some special-case optimisation.

Day 16 fits very nicely with the sorts of data handling functions built into the Haskell standard library.

I built this bottom-up, writing functions to do the tasks I needed to complete the specification. There wasn't a great deal of planning or deep thought involved in this.

I can expand the given pattern by using `replicate`

, and using `map`

to apply it to all the digits in the base pattern. That gives me a list of lists of digits, so I flatten it by using `concatMap`

. `cycle`

turns the expaned pattern into an infinite list, and I drop the first digit from it.

```
basePattern :: [Int]
basePattern = [0, 1, 0, -1]
patternOf :: Int -> [Int]
patternOf index = drop 1 $ cycle $ concatMap (replicate index) basePattern
```

I can combine the digits and the expanded pattern to find the new digit at each index. I do that by merging the digits and the pattern, combining elements with `(*)`

, and summing the result (mod 10). The `abs`

is there in case the sum is negative.

```
elementAt :: [Int] -> Int -> Int
elementAt digits index = (abs $ sum $ zipWith (*) digits $ patternOf index) `mod` 10
```

A single FFT round comprises finding the element at each index. The full FFT sequence is an `iterate`

ion of the FFT rounds.

```
fftStep :: [Int] -> [Int]
fftStep digits = map (elementAt digits) [1..(length digits)]
fft :: [Int] -> [[Int]]
fft = iterate fftStep
```

The solution is picking out the 101st value returned by `fft`

, taking the first 8 digits, and formatting it for a neater display.

```
part1 :: [Int] -> String
part1 digits = map intToDigit $ take 8 $ (fft digits)!!100
```

This was a situation where brute force wasn't going to solve the problem. The naive approach (below) took far too long.

```
part2naive :: [Int] -> String
part2naive digits = map intToDigit signal
where fullDigits = concat $ replicate 10000 digits
result = (fft fullDigits)!!100
offset = read @Int $ map intToDigit $ take 7 digits
signal = take 8 $ drop offset result
```

The code snippet above uses the `@Int`

notation to tell `read`

what type it should return. This is an example of the visible type applications extension to GHC. It certainly makes this bit of code neater than trying to give a full type definition in the middle of things!

The trick is to exploit the structure of the extended pattern, especially when applied to the last few digits of the message.

When we're calculating the last digit in the new message, the pattern for that new digit will be many zeros and one one: it will look like [0, 0 … 0, 1]. That means the last digit of the message remains the same.

The pattern for the second-from-last digit is [0, 0 … 0, 1, 1], so the second-from-last digit in the new message is the sum of the last two digits in the old message (mod 10). The third-from-last digit uses the pattern s [0, 0 … 0, 1, 1, 1], so it's the sum of the last three digits in the old message (mod 10). This structure repeats for all the digits in the latter half of the message; with earlier digits, the pattern will start to look like [0, 0 … 0, 1, 1 … 0]. But that's not a problem in this case, as the offset means we only need the last 6000 or so digits in the 6,500,000-digit message.

That gives an obvious implementation. The last digit is the sum of the last one digits; the second-from-last digit is the sum of the last two digits; and so on.The function `tails`

gives me a list of the suffixes of the list, and in the order I want.

```
fastFftStep :: [Int] -> [Int]
fastFftStep digits = map (\ds -> (sum ds) `mod` 10) $ tails digits
```

Unfortunately, that's not quick enough.

But there's an even faster way, as clearly outlined by paul2718 on Reddit. The second-from-last digit in the new message is the last digit in the new message plus the second-from-last digit in the old message (mod 10). The third-from-last digit in the new message is the second-from-last digit in the new message plus the third-from-last digit in the old message.

In other words, a message that ends `abcdef`

will become a message that ends `ghijkl`

, like this:

```
a+b+c+d+e+f = g = a+h
b+c+d+e+f = h = b+i
c+d+e+f = i = c+j
d+e+f = j = d+k
e+f = k = e+l
f = l
```

`scanr`

does that repeated summing for me, and keeps all the results in a list.

```
fastFftStep digits = scanr (\d s -> (d + s) `mod` 10) 0 digits
```

And that's it!

Code

The code is available, and on Github.